Historically marginalized communities often lack legal support in business and social endeavors. While technological and educational advancements have rapidly increased access to information, continuous outreach is critical to facilitate understanding culturally pertinent topics. Amidst Guyana’s business dealings with foreign oil investors, business attorney and advocate Melissa Goolsarran Ramnauth pivoted her law firm to primarily aid Caribbean businesses and individuals.
In conjunction, she runs a website promoting the chronology of Indian and African relocation to the Caribbean. It is her mission to inform Caribbean businesses and successfully petition the governments of Guyana, Trinidad and Tobago and the United Kingdom to preserve ship records pertaining to Caribbean migration.
Born to Trinidadian and Guyanese parents, Ramnauth was both fascinated by her culture and frustrated by the absence of global awareness and resources available to help piece together her history. While studying at the University of Miami, she took classes exploring certain time frames and was intrigued by the intersection of history and law.
Why did you pursue a career in law?
I was drawn to American government, civics, and history. I chose law because in my mind it was the closest thing to history. I took general American history classes and then focused on the American Civil War era. This time frame overlaps with the Indian indentured servitude period. I never had the chance to take any classes on the Indian indentured servitude system. In retrospect, it is as if I was taking available classes with subjects that were the most similar to my history. If there was an option to major in Indian indentured servitude and slavery in the Caribbean, my focus would have been this instead.
Ramnauth delved further into the history of the Caribbean diaspora and began publishing her research on Instagram.
Summarize your research findings retracing Indo Caribbean immigration to the Caribbean. When did the first ships arrive from India? When did the last ships depart? Do you know how many Indians approximately returned?
Researching Indian indentured servitude in the Caribbean has been a long process. The first ships arrived in Guyana in 1838, and the last ship left Guyana in 1955. I’ve seen varying numbers about how many Indians returned to India, and read a few stories about how Indians came back to the Caribbean after realizing they were no longer accepted in India.
What resources are currently available to help trace ancestry from India to the Caribbean?
The Guyana Archivesand the Trinidad & Tobago Archives house records that include ship logs and passenger lists for Indian indentured servants. You can go in person to view these records at their respective governmental offices to find your ancestor. People can use information in the archives, along with genealogy services like Ancestry.com, to find out what part of India their ancestors came from.
After detailing more of the ships’ history online, Ramnauth states that she received, ‘positive feedback from many who had tried to trace their ancestry,’ but notes that the community was, ‘disheartened that archival papers are unprotected and breaking.’
When Guyana experienced an oil boom in 2019, Ramnauth utilized her knowledge as a trial-winning business attorney and expanded her available content online, gearing her business acumen toward oil development.
How has Guyana’s recent oil boom influenced your work?
I was concerned that Guyana’s recent oil finds would put the country at a disadvantage to foreign investors and nations, akin to colonial times. The citizens did not have the same access to education and opportunities as these entities. I did not want Guyanese to be taken advantage of and be on the losing end of a contract.
I started reading and writing more about the oil industry around March 2020 to raise awareness. Simultaneously, Guyana’s election results were uncertain. I felt compelled to raise awareness of a parallel I saw with the 2020 election and the election in the 1960s where the United States and United Kingdom intervened to prevent Cheddi Jagan from becoming president. I had a newborn baby that was up every 1.5 hours, and two toddlers. Still, I was on a mission to write an essay summarizing the election and the pitfalls of outside influence draining Guyana’s resources. I sent it to everyone and ended up publishing it on my own law firm website’s blog which has since been relocated.
As a result, I wrote history and business (especially oil) articles every week for nearly two years.
Ramnauth added that social media quickly created a, ‘platform to meet Caribbean businesses and teach about important legal requirements.’
What obstacles do you see Caribbean businesses and individuals having when accessing legal aid? Do you have any tips to alleviate their concerns?
Knowledge is the first obstacle. Many do not know what options they have. How can you select a choice if you did not know it was an option? There can also be a language and cultural barrier.
For others, they may know that they need a lawyer but cannot afford a lawyer. Almost all states have legal aid programs that cover family law, immigration, bankruptcyand more if income is below a certain threshold. Law schools also have clinics where students take on cases with a licensed attorney. Other lawyers offer to take cases free of charge. If people are unsure, they should consult with a lawyer and explain their case. A proper lawyer would refer them to a lawyer in the correct field. They can always email me!
Lastly, Ramnauth cautions those who are, ‘hesitant to invest in legal protections.’ She warns, ‘it costs 10x-100x more if they do not do what they need to do in the beginning.’
Currently, Ramnauth’s primary goal is to bring awareness to the available records on migration.
She stipulates that the archives, ‘records need to be preserved and limited to general access, but still be available and searchable online for descendants and the public to browse.’
Her advocacy led to the creation of an official proposal publicly petitioning the governments of Guyana, Trinidad and Tobago and the United Kingdom.
Describe your petition and current proposal to digitize records.
My ‘Petition to Preserve & Digitize Indian Indentured Servant & Enslaved African Ship Records in Guyana and Trinidad & Tobago’ is two-fold. I want the governments of Trinidad & Tobago, Guyana and the U.K. to protect the fragile pages of the ship logs and passenger lists that link us to India. In most cases, this is the only way we will ever know which ancestor came from India to the Caribbean.
Secondly, I want these governments to scan and upload the information in its entirety to a public database that anyone can access for free. It is 2022 and the resources are available to make this a reality. I’ve been waiting for the records to be online, I saw some efforts were taken but not completed. I want to start collecting signatures now to get the word out. And in doing that, I hope to connect with someone knowledgeable on digital preservation so that I can remind the governments that the minimal cost of preservation is greatly outweighed by the information contained within the pages.
During this time, Mr. Arthur Torrington, secretary of the Equiano Society and the Windrush Foundation, successfully petitioned the United Kingdom to have census data relating to enslaved Africans digitized. You can view the records here.
What has been the response so far from your petition?
The response has been great. I was surprised to see so many people interested. Growing up in the diaspora, you feel like the only one interested in a history that many don’t know about. This petition has formed a small community centered around this specific and necessary goal.
Is there a timeline for your proposal?
I’m going to submit my proposal to the government by the end of October. I hope to have more hard numbers regarding digital preservation by then. However, if I don’t have that information, I will still submit my proposal and encourage the governments to put together the best preservation. I will keep submitting my proposal with frequency until the project is completed.
Ramnauth’s petition reflects the wanting of communities to unlock fragments of a disjointed history where, ‘entire generations and populations were forever displaced for free and cheap labor.’
If successful, the petition can aid individuals in tracing their exact ancestors. It would bring to light a time period that was devoid of documented war crimes and reparations.
Through her weekly website writings dissecting history, law and oil, Ramnauth hopes that those of Caribbean descent can, ‘feel a more certain self-worth that can carry over into their businesses. We didn’t have the benefit of generations of business knowledge or trust funds. Nevertheless, the digital age has made it possible for us to have a better playing field.’
January 16, 2023January 16, 2023 6min readBy Sejal Sehmi
I was a mere 14-year old on the fateful night of 22 April 1993. The night that witnessed black teenager Stephen Lawrence brutally murdered in a racially motivated attack as he waited for a bus. The night that cemented my fear, that the colour of my skin does matter. The same night that confirmed my indifference as a British Asian in the United Kingdom — were we really united? Fast forward to May 25 2020, the murder of African-American George Floyd by a white policeman was the turning point for British Asian author and my lovely friend, Shweta Aggarwal to finally break her silence and narrate her story of colourism, in her new book, “The Black Rose.”
Aggarwal’s gripping memoir emits so many emotions; that of an awakening, a voice that has been suppressed for years, filled with anger, mistrust and guilt. But most importantly, “The Black Rose” successfully disrupts the narrative that consistently allows society to box someone as indifferent based on a visibility factor. For Shweta, this factor was the colour of her skin. The injustices she consistently endured via some family members and fellow South Asian peers throughout her life, was as a result of her skin tone failing to qualify as ‘acceptable’, or as she often quotes in her book, not ranking high enough on the ‘fairometer.’ Whether she was in India, Japan or London, the scale was never too far behind.
Within the first chapter, she recalls as a child in India, the distinct lack of subtlety displayed by certain family members through direct taunts of her duskier appearance in comparison to her parents. She realised that she wasn’t in complete isolation from this prejudice, as her maternal aunt and uncle were also harshly nicknamed on the basis of their skin colour — Kaali (black) and Savla (wheatish). Aggarwal was left mortified by what many South Asians sadly still continue to casually exercise. Echoing similar incidents within my social proximity, it’s infuriating witnessing the recipients of such remarks surrender to laughing at themselves too.
Except it isn’t funny. Born into a culture where conversations on religion, caste and hierarchy in India are still so prominent, the comparison of Aggarwal’s skin colour being as dark as that of the domestic help (often from poorer families), prematurely planted seeds in her mind that she simply didn’t belong with her family, especially when she was sent to boarding school. Her lack of self-worth coupled with these taunts, gave her a whole new vocabulary for the letter B, that grew in parallel with the ongoing prejudice and anxiety. B for blackie, beggar’s child, bedwetter! Not funny, but derogatory. Post her book launch that Brown Girl Magazine attended, she tells me,
I personally feel we are way behind when it comes to understanding the importance of mental health. Name-calling was normalised and if you objected, you were ridiculed further with remarks such as ‘So sensitive! Can’t you take a joke?’ Body and colour shaming can lead to a feeling of inadequacy in the victim, which can further lead to depression and much worse mental illnesses.
During the 1984 Hindu Sikh riots in India, where over 3000 Sikhs lost their lives, Aggarwal recollects the frightening moment when she and her classmates fled into hiding to escape the violence during a school trip. As a means to save all the students from harm, the Sikh boys were forced to remove their turbans and long hair — their visible identities stripped to keep them alive. Yet, ironically, even in this horrifying situation, Aggarwal felt least at risk, attributing this self-assurance to her darker appearance.
The crux of her self-loathe was the love-hate relationship she formed with skin whitening creams. The birth of Fair and Lovely, India’s most renown brand (now known as Glow and Lovely following a backlash) was notorious for selling the damaging message that fairer skin equated to a happier and fulfilling life. For it was fairer skin women that would qualify for marriage — clearly their only sole purpose!
Tactfully using famous fair-skinned Bollywood actresses in television ads and posters, their so-called perfection would scream out to vulnerable young girls. (Men were targeted much later on, but the importance seemed less). Akin to the wretched beach body posters plastered on every corner in January — because apparently bikinis only look good on a certain body type — the damaging message remains the same. Social acceptance comes at a cost, and that cost is to look a certain way.
It’s an extension of the dated methods imposed on women from the womb, where mothers are lectured on drinking milk with saffron to ensure the baby is fair, traditional matrimonial sites asking women to specify skin colour, and women being told to stay out of the sun. These socially ingrained views are eventually developed into modern day methods in the form of cleverly marketed consumables. Aggarwal admits,
Most people only use the cream on their face just as I did. At that time, I didn’t even think about the rest of the body. I felt that if the face becomes fairer, that will be enough for acceptance. My mum noticed the difference for sure and I was lighter by the time I met my husband, Amit. I must admit the addiction is a combination of three factors: the justification in your own head, the strong marketing message that ONLY fair is beautiful, and the ‘compliments’ from those around you.
I admired Shweta’s honesty on admitting what essentially was a dangerous obsession that she remained faithful to throughout her teenage and adult life. A ritual that, whilst prompted gradual results in her appearance, was never going to eliminate the insecurities she felt within herself. Moments of joy with her husband and children on holidays abroad, would be broken up by the need to ‘fix’ any damage the sun may have inflicted i.e. reverse her tan. The booming tanning industry in U.K., her now home, and admiration of her ‘sun-kissed’ look by Brits initially surprised Aggarwal — as if her colour had now gained acceptance.
But who are we seeking acceptance from? A society that is still deep rooted in patriarchy forcing women even now to adhere to dated rites of passage that holds no relevance? Or a society that seeks to point out one’s indifference because of how they look — their skin, their religious attire, their weight? Or a society that passes judgement on a woman’s self-worth, and continues to abuse that same woman behind closed doors under the eyes of Goddess Kali? Aggarwarl goes on to explain,
The more damaging perceptions of colourism, are that ‘fair is rich’, ‘fair is successful’ and ‘fair is better educated’. Essentially, ‘fair is supreme’ in every sense. And if that’s the case, where does that leave dark-skinned people? In Ukraine, for example black and brown people were discriminated against and not given a fair chance to save their lives. Is it fair to be denied a basic human right — survival — based on your colour?
I personally was curious to know from my family what the definition of prejudice in the Hindi vocabulary is and how it is/was applied to in India. “Pakshappat” (taking sides) or “poorva dhaarna”, were the closest pure Hindi definitions known to my cousin, yet rarely used. However, my dad stated that “hum bedh bhau nahin hai” was the common term used to state amongst family and friends when someone was not biased and believed in equality. Somehow, colourism never really came under that category. A sentiment echoed by some of my Chinese and black friends . Even in parts of China and Africa, the belief that darker skin is perceived as inferior, is accredited to stereotyping certain groups of people as manual labourers working under the sun, and therefore of a lower class or caste. Does Shweta believe we can change this attitude?
A couple of my aunts are still reluctant to help me with my mission. One even said ‘it’s pointless fighting it’, while one said, ‘everyone has the right to define beauty for themselves and being fairer is what beauty is for some.’ The problem with this is that people then start to look down on people who aren’t. Colourism, casteism and classism divide people, creating more unrest in society. If we continue to aspire to be fairer, we’re still encouraging white skin privilege, and encouraging colonial values. The more we allow ourselves to succumb to these social constructs, the more enslaved we feel internally. Melanin is crucial for protecting our skin against the harmful radiation of the sun. Feel blessed that you have it and wear it with pride!
I wonder how we can dare to walk shoulder to shoulder with our black friends in the Black Lives Matter movement, if we refuse to face up to our own biases against colour? We seek equality in the U.K., but deny our deep-rooted prejudice, whilst a white privileged man lectures the world on the difference between racism and unconscious bias (yes Prince Harry, I’m looking at you!). “The Black Rose” has paved a way for many more voices to speak out against the damaging impact of colourism, and in my view, rightly belongs under the definition of prejudice in the collective South Asian vocabulary.
“The Black Rose” is available to purchase on Amazon.
Featured Photo Credit Kevita Junior | Left to Right: Tu hiya ka kare he, Tu kaha bate, Tu hamar ke bate
Thundering waves clawed on the body of the vessel as the sea swallowed the voices of terrified passengers. They clung to the shreds of the Eagle Speed as each hour submerged the ship deeper within the kala pani (dark waters). Steamer ships were sent for rescue, finding two children alone, clenching to the remains of the mast. The unscathed captain and crew fled in boats, leaving the lives of coolies (indentured laborers) to the fate of the dark waters. TheEagle Speed set sail on August 19th, 1865 from Calcutta to Demerara. This tragedy took the lives of over 300 hundred indentured laborers. The coolies onboard were not just casualties of the kala pani, but a larger system of British colonialism.
The crossing of these tumultuous seas wasforbidden for Hindus, as it meant the severance of reincarnation and the unraveling of caste. Yet more than 2 million Indians were taken across the kala pani. The forbidden water carried stories along its transatlantic waves, bearing witness to history lost against its tides. The restraints of caste drowned along the voyages as surnames and relations were cast across the seas. They became Singhs (lions) and Maharaj’s (great kings), Brahmins by boatinstead of birth.
These indentured workers were mainly taken from regions of Bihar and Uttar Pradesh to different corners of the globe, with some of the largest to the Caribbean. Guyana experienced around238,909 workers, Trinidad 143,939 and Suriname 34,304. With 399 Indians, the Lalla Rookh docked on June 5, 1873, at Nieuw Amsterdam in Suriname, later becoming known as the coolie depot. As workers poured out of ships and onto plantations, they experienced violence and oppression at alarming rates, especially against women.
They were nameless and barefooted with gold jhumkas and bangles adorning their bodies. As tourism increased in the Caribbean’s, photographing indentured women on postcards became part of its selling point. These women became subjects to appease the white colonizer gaze and fetishized exotic ‘Coolie belles.’ A bulk of these postcards were shot in Trinidad and sold in local shops to visiting tourists. Yet these postcards failed to translate the hierarchy of power between the photographed and those behind the camera. The white European men who carried out these photoshoots chose backdrops that masked the real conditions of sugar cane fields and living quarters. Who were these women? What were their names? The women were juxtaposed with the term ‘Coolie,’ a slur for laborer and ‘Belle,’ the French word for beautiful. They were coined as laborers of beauty, yet their eyes tell a story of fear of pain.
Tu hamár ke bate? (Who are you to me?) Tu hiyá ká kare he? (What are you doing here?) Tu kahá báte? (Where are you?) Artist Nazrina Rodjan posits these questions that rummage through the minds of many Indo Caribbean descendants. Who were my ancestors? What did they experience? Rodjan aims to explore the experiences of indentured women through her oil painting series “Kala Pani.” In this series, she reimagines the postcards of indentured women alike the depictions of European nobility. In conversation with Rodjan she mentions,
I’ve thought long and hard about whether it would be ethical to reproduce these staged images of women who might have felt scared and uncomfortable being brought into these studios to be photographed by men. I will never know their true experiences and how they might have felt knowing a stranger in the future will decide to paint them in the same positions they were put in for the original photograph.
Rodjan’s art series started as a way to commemorate 150 years since the first indentured workers arrived in Suriname and expanded to include regions like Guyana, Trinidad and Jamaica.
Wanting to reclaim these images comes from feelings of injustice whenever I see these postcards. They were made from a dehumanizing perspective. Reclaiming these images becomes necessary knowing how the violence Indo-Caribbean women still face today is just a continuation of the violence brought onto indentured Indian women then. To me, creating this piece, symbolized the acceptance of questions remaining unanswered, stories being lost forever, and realizing that after a history full of trauma, there’s a treasure in the women that are still here to tell their stories.
The ratio of men to women arriving on these ships left little to no autonomy for women. Experiences of violence on ships and plantations were common throughout the Caribbean. Despite this, indentured women became trailblazers and pioneers in uprisings against poor working conditions.
Everything about these women seems to be a question we can never answer, but I decided to give them titles in Hindustani that are questions they might have for me as the painter who looks at them and sees both a stranger and a loved one. Tu hamár ke báte? Who are you to me?
Living in the Netherlands, Rodjan talks about her experiences tracing her ancestry and honoring this history:
Unfortunately, in the Netherlands learning about the history of Dutch colonization only meant memorizing all the different spices they brought in and listening to teachers talking proudly about the Dutch East India Company in elementary school. Tracing back my ancestors has so far only led to a picture of my parnani and a few more names in the family tree.
OnMay 5, 1838, Anat Ram stepped foot on the rich grounds of Berbice, becoming the first Indian laborer in Guyana. The Whitby and Hesperus departed from Calcutta on January 13 and arrived in Berbice first then West Demerara. Over the course of 79 years, approximately259 ships voyaged from India to Guyana. While the experiences of these ancestors may remain unknown, artists like Suchitra Mattai aims to revitalize the voices of our indentured ancestors.
Suchitra Mattai is an Indo Guyanese multi-disciplinary artist. Through her work, she uses the experience of her family’s migration and the history of indentureship to rewrite and expand our notions of history. In her piece, Life-line, a rope of saris pours out of a tilted boat, mirroring the experiences of her ancestor’s journey across the transatlantic. The saris serve as both water and a connection to two lands, India and Guyana. Mattai further explores indentureship in the piece “Coolie Woman,” depicting a woman seated with a sari, embellished with jewelry and flowers.
I wanted to reimagine the photo to give her agency. I also wanted to address the desire for people of the diaspora to connect to their homelands and ancestral pasts. The painted wallpaper drips and fades to parallel the way my memory of Guyana ebbs and flows, Mattai says.
Anchoring at the Port of Spain on April 22, 1917, the last ship to ever carry indentured Indians made its final stop. A system that bound Indians to an unknown land finally ended after 79 years.
To invoke conversation and pay homage to their memory, artist Gabrielle Francis creatively analyzes indentureship. Gabrielle Francis is an Indo Trinidadian queer interdisciplinary artist, writer and organizer from Queens, New York. In her piece “206:21 Queer Altar Mixed Media Performance,” Francis pays homage to her indentured ancestors with a focus on queer identities. The title 206:21 reflects the ratio of men to women that journeyed on the Fatel Razack, the first ship from India to Trinidad. A mirror is decorated with the colors of Trinidad’s flag along with six candles embodying the pride flag and vibrant red carnations. Written across the mirror is, “I wonder how many of you were queer?” A question that allows for openness and conversation around potential queer ancestors. Written records around indentureship were translated and produced by European men, leaving little to no room for women or queer folks. Francis’s work aims to transform and challenge Eurocentric narratives surrounding indentured history.
As descendants of indentureship, it becomes difficult to sit with questions that may never have answers. Visiting National Archives or exploringdigital databases can help connect descendants to learn about their own history. As we unravel difficult experiences of the past it’s important to ask, how do we carry the legacies of our ancestors? How do we honor their sacrifices?
As they were stripped of their identities and reduced to passenger numbers, they fostered new relations—jahaji bhai and jahaji bhain (ship brother and sister). From shipmates to family, to present-day melodies of chutney music to the stew of pepper pot on Christmas morning, these bonds of community have evolved and are seen across the diaspora today.